This interferes with the DNA sequence known to be protected from DNase I digestion by CrtJ and partly covers the CrtJ recognition web site spanning the −35 promoter area . Competition of CrtJ and RegA for DNA binding on the puc promoter was additionally noticed in vitro . The elements that decide whether or not activation by PrrA or inhibition by PpsR prevails need additional elucidation. It is conceivable that the phosphorylation state of PrrA is one of these elements. The AppA protein of Rhodobacter sphaeroides has the unique capacity to sense and transmit redox and light signals.

Oxygen-regulated expression of genes for pigment binding proteins in Rhodobacter capsulatus.J. Mol. Light-dependent repression of photosynthesis genes in R. sphaeroides underneath semiaerobic conditions is determined by the presence of the PrrA response regulator. Recently, we revealed that signal transmission by AppA requires a heme cofactor (Y. Han, M. Meyer, M. Keusgen, and G. Klug, submitted for publication). The levels of proteins with certain heme may be elevated if E.

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The expression values at low oxygen have been divided by the expression ranges of a control kept at high oxygen rigidity, and the relative change on this value in comparison with time level zero was plotted. Response of puc expression to blue-mild illumination of Paracoccus denitrificans expressing the appA and ppsR genes or the ppsR gene only . Light illumination started at time level zero, and expression of a puc-lux reporter gene was followed by dedication of luminescence. Expression values in the mild were divided by expression ranges of a control stored at midnight, and the relative change on this value compared to time level zero was plotted. Results for a single consultant experiment are given.


coli-kind promoters. Therefore, expression of AppA and PpsR in different micro organism doesn’t set up blue-gentle signaling. It appears that the presence of AppA interferes with PpsR repression even at high oxygen tension in E. coli, and no redox-dependent change in AppA-PpsR interaction happens. Based on earlier reports, it is unlikely that the cytoplasmic redox potential of Rhodobacter is much less decreased than that of E. We demonstrated just lately that a heme cofactor connected to AppA is involved in redox and light signaling (Han et al., submitted).